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サイゾーを買う

月刊サイゾー編集部なるところから連絡をいただき、星野博美さん(♡)と対談企画のお話をいただきました。嬉しい~。世の中のトレンドは何一つ追っていない私ですので、「サイゾー」というのは、「知恵蔵」のようなものかと思っておりましたが、表紙はかなり、あの、書店でレジに持っていくのはちょっと(ていうかかなり)恥ずかしい。しかし意を決して、一応事前リサーチとして、丸の内オアゾの丸善で購入しました。
中身はちょっとガッカリするほど(!)、活字が多い、インテリな雑誌でした。no nukes活動家のうちのアシスタントさんに言わせると、「週刊現代」もああ見えて、言論部分ではかなりシッカリとした雑誌ということですので、「見かけ」でおびき寄せて、裏で「啓蒙」するタイプなのか、、、、。
丸の内に行ったのは、読売新聞本社ビルに用事があったから。新社屋になってから、初めて行ったら、なんか敷居が高かった・・・。15年ぶりくらいにフラフラしてみましたが、丸の内を歩いている人って、本郷あたりを歩いている人と全然違う人種で、みなさん、ピシッとされてますね~。

[PR]
by mihokodesousa1 | 2017-03-24 09:46

現在の研究対象

先週参加した、某英文日本史シリーズ執筆者会議のために用意した資料が、結局個人の章内容に関して、それほどお話しできる時間がなかったので、不用に終わってしまいました。どこかに発表するほどのものでもないので、ここに貼っておきます。

The arrival of Christianity in Japan and its rise and fall in the transition period from Sengoku to Edo

Mihoko Oka ( The University of Tokyo)

The enterprise undertaken by Catholic missionaries, especially by the Society of Jesus and the Japanese reaction to it in the 16th and 17th centuries, was studied mainly from one perspective: the so-called European expansion and indigenous response. Framing the innumerous phenomena born from this matter in this limited perspective prevented people from recognizing facts about Japanese society during the transition period from Sengoku to Edo surrounding those missionaries as well as religious matters in the same period.
Since the author found that Christianity was recognized and accepted as a neo-Buddhism sect by the Japanese (not only by ordinal people but also by political authorities like Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu), the framework for thinking about Christianity in Japan changed completely. The author tries to omit or minimize the Eurocentric vision (or Jesuit centric vision) as much as possible to clarify the real meaning of the rise of Christianity in Japan and the issues that brought persecution by the rulers.
Many historians briefly explained this matter as a “clash of civilizations.” However, the author believes that this is not true in this case. Since the arrival of Francis Xavier in Kagoshima in 1549, most Jesuits practiced cultural adaptation. The most famous and influential person who declared this to be a non-infringing matter on Catholic theology was the Italian Jesuit Alessandro Valignano. However, many former missionaries already practiced cultural adaptation, almost infringing on the theology.
I may give two examples in Bungo-Oita from around the 1560s. The Lord of Bungo, Otomo Yoshishige, contributed a small but important estate (manor) to a Jesuit in Hakata. This estate included the Buddhist Temple of Hokkeshu, and they could get income from Buddhist monks and live there without fighting each other. This is the earliest example of the manor of the Jesuits that had never been studied. In addition, Otomo Yoshishige demanded that the Jesuit priests bring their sacred objects to the commemorative ceremony of the Buddhists that he held, and they had to obey this demand.
If we focus on the “church,” this cultural adaptation becomes very clear. The Japanese called this sacred house “tera” (寺), although the Jesuit records never used this name. The doctrine that they taught might be different from other Japanese Buddhist sects. However, the most attractive propaganda used by the Jesuits was salvation after death, even if this was not new propaganda for them. In addition, the charitable works that the Jesuits had shown were rarely seen among Buddhist monks at that time. It is comprehensible that the Japanese in the Sengoku Period were attracted by these new monks from Tenjiku.
Considering the religious matters causing political conflicts, it was not only Nobunaga who suffered from the group united by these beliefs. The most menacing religious group was Ikkoshu at that time. Hideyoshi and Ieyasu also wasted their energy and time to suppress the Ikkoshu in their domains. Especially, Ieyasu lost his favorite vassals as his enemies in Mikawa-Ikko-ikki (三河一向一揆) in 1564. This experience must have raised awareness on the united group of their faith in Ieyasu, and the ban against Christianity may also be located along the same lines.
The most obvious example of the similarity and parallelism that the authorities recognized in Ikkoshu and Christianity is the first ban against Christianity issued by Hideyoshi in 1587 (*according to recent studies, we shall use the word “regulation” instead of “ban”). On comparison, Hideyoshi found these two sects to be dangerous and declared Christianity to be worse than the other.
Although I try to minimize the Eurocentric vision, it is also undeniable that Spanish imperialism and the ambition of the newly arriving religious orders, especially of the Franciscans from Manilla, caused the rulers to be more serious cautious. If we compare the background of the two types of bans by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu, we recognize that important diplomatic surroundings had changed from 1590 to 1615; namely, diplomacy with Spanish territories and the arrival of the mendicant orders. This combination was totally different from the group consisting of Portuguese traders from Macao and the Jesuits who had been keeping a position that was inferior to that of the Japanese rulers. In a document written in 1605, Ieyasu declared that the difference between Jesuit and mendicant orders was as great as that of the Portuguese traders from Macao and the Spanish officials from the Philippines.

In this chapter, the author tries to explain the background and the process of each affair mentioned, and finally examines non-Eurocentric Christian history in Japan.
[PR]
by mihokodesousa1 | 2017-03-23 15:34

第二ミッション終了

e0210741_13354238.jpg
石見銀山のシンポジウムを終了。かなり大きな舞台なので、着物を着ました。自分のしゃべりのところで、突如ハナミズが出てきて、拭くものも拭く暇もなかったために、ズビズビと、マイクに鼻すすり音を響かせてしまいました。集中力がそこにそがれて、まともに喋れていなかった気がします。恩師がきて写真を撮ってくださったので、アップします。今週木曜日から、弾丸2泊で北米方面へ。
[PR]
by mihokodesousa1 | 2017-03-13 13:35

ミッション終了

今週は激動の一週間で、火曜日には日帰りで、地の果て(?)生月島・平戸島へ行き、昨日・今日と東京文化財研究所の南蛮漆器のシンポジウムにて報告・参加して参りました。
ふだん全く縁のない、美術史・漆工史の世界でしたので、あまりの無知蒙昧さに会場の方々もあきれ返ったかと思いますが、仕方ありません。すごく面白くて、やはり南蛮貿易・文化の世界も捨てがたい、と、国内のキリシタン史に当面専念するつもりが、大交易時代のダイナミズムにまたぐーーーっと引き戻されそうです。
今週日曜日は、虎ノ門日本消防会館で石見銀山祭りです。衣装は、飛梅柄の小紋に、捩り梅の黒塩瀬の帯を合わせ、「梅尽くし」の予定です。
[PR]
by mihokodesousa1 | 2017-03-06 00:00

南蛮貿易、大航海時代、マカオ、長崎など


by mihokodesousa1
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